The figure above shows the solidified droplet. Note that the originally spherical water droplet has solidified into a droplet with a cusp-like top. To see more frozen droplet images, click here.
The figure below shows the shape predictions from our model compared with the experiments. The digitized data from the actual experiments are indicated with the open circles (initial shape) and the open diamonds (final solidified shape). The solid lines represent the predictions from the theoretical model (for initial and final shapes) using a dynamic growth angle condition at the solid--liquid--vapor tri-junction. The dashed line gives the prediction of the solid shape for a zero (constant) growth angle.